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Summary of Electrocardiogram

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Electrocardiogram
  • An electrocardiogram (ECG) is the recording of small electric waves being generated during heart activity.
  • Thus the electrical activity of heart starts at the top of the heart and spreads down.
  • In the heart there are specialized cells called pacemaker cells. These cells produce small electrical signals by changing their electrical charge from positive to negative and back.
  • For the cardiovascular system to work properly, the atria and ventricles must operate in proper time relationship.
  • It is necessary that to initiate the heart beat, the action potentials generated by the pacemakers propagate in all directions along the surface of atria.
  • There are two types of leads used for the ECG measurement.
  • The unipolar electrode have only one true pole(positive pole).The bipolar leads have one positive and one negative pole. In the standard ECG recording, there are five electrodes connected to the patient. Right Arm (RA), Left Arm (LA), Left Leg (LL), Right Leg (RL) and Chest(C).
  • The stretch between two limbs (arm or leg) is electrodes are called a lead.
  • Einthoven proved that at any instant of the cardiac cycle, the frontal plane representation of the electrical axis of the heart is a two dimensional vector. It is called Einthoven triangle.
  • A typical ECG representation of the normal cardiac cycle consists of a P-wave, a QRS complex and a T- wave.
  • Baseline is the horizontal segment of the waveform before the P-wave is called baseline or iso-potential line.
  • Simply the P- wave represents the depolarization of the atrial muscles.
  • The QRS complex is a recording of a single heart beat on the ECG that corresponds to the depolarization of both ventricles.
  • The T-wave represents the recovery or re-polarization of ventricles.
  • U- wave is the result of after potentials of the ventricular muscles.
  • In an ECG machine an appropriate lead pair can be selected by a lead selector switch which can be switched to different pairs according to the type of waveform needed.
  • The ECG signal is having very weak amplitude levels. So it is necessary that for proper analysis and plotting purpose, the waveform is to be amplified.
  • The PMMC (Permanent Magnet Moving Coil) galvanometer is a special type of device, where the deflection of the coil depends on the amplitude and the polarity of the signal applied to its input.
  • In most common ECG recording techniques, we use hot tip stylus for thermal writing.
  • Usually we use thermal recorders for the representation of ECG waveform.
  • Cardiac memory describes the phenomenon whereby the T-wave abnormalities that results from a change in the direction of cardiac activation as during ventricular pacing.

Author Bio: The Author of this article, Sreejith is writing articles on Electrocardiogram of the Heart and Trivandrum Portal

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Health

Adult Circumcision Is Bound To Make an Impact in Your Health

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Adult Circumcision

In adult men, circumcision is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the foreskin from the head of the penis, to expose it. In some cultures and religious practices, this is a common surgery. However, when talking about the surgery across the United States, it is an estimate that over 50% of newborns and infant babies go through the procedure. On the other hand, the remaining 50% opt for the adult circumcision Atlanta later in time.

In some other European countries, the rate of circumcision is quite low, about 1%. In some religious practices, including under the Jewish law, some scholars also encourage men to consider this practice. Today, however, circumcision is no longer a procedure necessary for infants, and the decision to cut or not to cut is one that parents decide for their children.

The most common time when a surgeon’s advice parents to take the decision for their child is just a few days after their birth. Even though this is a common procedure mostly in infants and newborns, circumcision in men is possible at any age. Keep in mind that some men also consider this surgery for health or medical reasons, and if you decide to opt for it, rest assured that it is bound t make an impact on your health.

During the Adult Circumcision

During the surgery, the role of a Circumcision Center expert is to free the foreskin from the head of the penis, and they clip it off. This procedure lasts for about 5-10 minutes in newborns. However, in adults, this takes at least an hour. In infants, the healing phase lasts for 5-7 days, whereas adults will need more care, and follow safety measures within their healing period, which takes about four weeks.

How the Surgery Makes an Impact on Your Health

The major reasons why men consider the adult circumcision surgery is to seek relief from certain medical conditions. Along with adults, research shows that circumcision is beneficial for infants as well, where it reduces their risk of contracting urinary tract infections. This is important, especially within the first five years of their life.

In men, it also reduces the risks of sexually transmitted diseases and penile cancer. In addition, it helps to maintain genital cleanliness and prevents the chances of odors.

The Cure for Balanoposthitis and Phimosis

In several cases, paraphimosis turns out to be a painful health condition that leads to swelling and pain around the head or the glans of the penis. This is because of the restriction of blood flow in this sensitive area due to the health problem. When this condition affects men, and if the foreskin remains stuck on the penis tip, this becomes quite hard for men to consider pulling the foreskin back, which would cause swelling and pain. In some cases, if men do not pay attention to proper hygiene, this could lead to other health issues such as penile tissue death.

On the other hand, balanoposthitis is a health condition that often results from bacterial infections, swelling, and pain in the foreskin. Usually, the symptoms of this condition could also lead to pain and pus while men try to urinate. Adult circumcision at such times will help to keep these conditions away, and you should ensure that you care for the incisions in your home.

Lowers the Risk of HIV

Another major reason why men should consider the circumcision is because of the compelling evidence from the World Health Organization, where the surgery will actually reduce the risks of men contracting HIV, especially during heterosexual intimacy.

On the other hand, the WHO also points out that men should still be cautious and use condoms. The risk of HIV is higher in uncircumcised men because the sensitive foreskin of the penis would be prone to ruptures and splits during the time of intercourse. This ends up leaving space or room for the pathogens to find their way into the bloodstream.

At other times, the space between the foreskin and the penis would provide the right environment for the HIV virus to survive for some time, which would also increase the risks of the infection to spread in individuals and across to their partners. Research also shows that the United States also has a relatively higher rate of HIV; then again, the results also vary in other countries like Africa and some in Asia, where this is prevalent, especially in the heterosexual population.

Some men do not even go through the adult circumcision procedure, because they may not be facing any health-related issues with their foreskin. However, infections and some cases of poor hygiene are common issues. It is always advisable that as an adult male, you should opt for the removal of the foreskin, which will serve as a preventative measure.

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Causes and the Treatment of the Heart Diseases

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Treatment of the Heart Diseases

There are wide ranges of people who have different lifestyles, but heart disease has been a very widely found these days. It has nothing to do much with the lifestyle of the people. With the constant elevation of the pollution rate, it is now a problem which has gained a lot of concerns. People are now in search of the ways to get away with these deadly heart issues. It is found that these days one among every four deaths is caused due to the heart diseases.

Heart diseases can be treated with medicines in the early stages, but if the disease grows to the later stages, then there is a chance of the undergoing some serious heart surgeries. One must always prefer the best doctor for heart surgery in India to avail the best recommendations. There can be many heart diseases, and some of them are listed below:

  • Congenital heart disease:

This is the malfunctioning of the heart due to some deformities since birth. There is a hole in the heart. The flow of blood is blocked, and thus it causes the shortage of blood in certain parts of the body.

  • Arrhythmia:

This is the disease of irregular heartbeats. There are numerous reasons for which one can suffer irregular beating of hurt. When the heart beats fast then the condition is known as the tachycardia, when there is the slow beating of heart then it is known as bradycardia, there is also a premature contraction of the ventricles than the condition. Sometimes there is an irregular beating of the heart, and almost all the people experience it, but if it happens very often, then it can be fatal for the health.

  • Coronary artery disease:

The prime function of this artery is to keep the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart muscles. In the coronary artery disease, the coronary arteries become diseased and thus it fails to provide the required amount of blood to the heart muscles. They mostly stop their functioning because there is a deposit of cholesterol on them which damage them from within. Due to this malfunctioning, he heart falls fatigue as there develops a shortage of oxygen in the blood.

  • Dilated cardiomyopathy:

There occurs a dilation of the heart as the heart muscles get weakened, and the heart is no ability to pump blood. This is so because it has a shortage of oxygen in the heart muscles.

  • Myocardial Infarction:

This is also termed as the heart attack in our daily lives. There is a sudden blood clot in the coronary arteries which damages a part of the heart.

  • Heart failure:

The congestive heart failure when the heart fails to perform its functions well, and there is a shortage of blood in the body. When the heart is diagnosed with such disease, then one side of the body is found to be paralyzed.

There are many doctors available, but one must always go for the best doctor for heart surgery in India so as there is no chance of the failure of the treatment and the patient is ensured with fast recovery.

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Health

It is High Time You See a Psychologist: Why?

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High Time You See a Psychologist

The world is not really a peaceful and calm place to live in. you struggle through so many mental aches and burdens every day. The work load hampers your mind and the responsibilities always steal the calmness of your brain. Amidst this, you can do only one thing and that would be to visit a psychologist.

If you feel that to visit a psychologist’s means you are mad or crazy then you need to grow up. People often have a myth that whoever goes to a psychologist has some problem in their brain. Come on, it is not about madness or craziness lone; it is a bigger concept. Sometimes, to keep your mind and brain tranquil, you need to see a psychologist. You know the daily stressors — the type you think you can tackle with or handle, can eventually overpower you and throw your life out of balance and influencing both your psychological and physical health.You won’t want that right?

Your job is getting on your nerves

Every one of you is troubled with some or the other thing of your job. Some of you have to sit till late night to finish the projects and the others are always packed with different deadlines. There are issues and problems in job world.  These issues are much more sufficient than anything else to hamper your mind and leave you hollow.

If you are unable to tackle with the day today job pressures then you need to see a psychologist. She or he might not share your job or do your assignments but they would give you a way out. They might give you all their ears and you might feel relaxed and much at ease afterwards. Since they have done studies in psychology, they would read the pattern of your thinking and get you some solutions that might be effective for you.

Squashed under family problems?

Are you squashed under any type of family problems? Is your marriage not working out the way it supposed to? Are your kids getting on your nerves? Do you feel really empty even when you have a beautiful family and a loving wife? Well, there are innumerable reasons that you might want to visit a psychologist. You have no clue how adverse situation and conditions these psychologists have solved.  They might give you some medication or solutions that help you stay calm and composed.

Are you going through a rough physical patch?

Are you getting sick from being so much stressed out?  Are you recovering any type of life threatening condition? Is there something persistent in your body that is bothering you? Are you a person with disability who is failing to cope with this ruthless world? Whatever be the thing, you can get the desired comfort in the words of the professional psychologists. If you are unable to take these stressed and annoyances on your own; it is highly advised to talk to a psychologist. They would heal you through their solutions and words.

Conclusion

Thus, having a word with a good psychologist is the best thing you can do for yourself you must look for Psychologist in Mumbai or in your city and talk!

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